C&B Notes

An EPIC GIF

The DISCOVR satellite launched in February carries a camera that is formally named the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (“EPIC”).  It recently returned images capturing the moon crossing in front of Earth showing these celestial bodies’ relative sizes and the fully illuminated “dark side” of the moon.

The images were captured by NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC), a four megapixel CCD camera and telescope on the DSCOVR satellite orbiting 1 million miles from Earth.  From its position between the sun and Earth, DSCOVR conducts its primary mission of real-time solar wind monitoring for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

EPIC maintains a constant view of the fully illuminated Earth as it rotates, providing scientific observations of ozone, vegetation, cloud height and aerosols in the atmosphere.  Once EPIC begins regular observations next month, the camera will provide a series of Earth images allowing study of daily variations over the entire globe.  About twice a year the camera will capture the moon and Earth together as the orbit of DSCOVR crosses the orbital plane of the moon.  These images were taken between 3:50 p.m. and 8:45 p.m. EDT on July 16, showing the moon moving over the Pacific Ocean near North America.  The North Pole is in the upper left corner of the image, reflecting the orbital tilt of Earth from the vantage point of the spacecraft.

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EPIC’s “natural color” images of Earth are generated by combining three separate monochrome exposures taken by the camera in quick succession.  EPIC takes a series of 10 images using different narrowband spectral filters — from ultraviolet to near infrared — to produce a variety of science products.  The red, green and blue channel images are used in these color images.  Combining three images taken about 30 seconds apart as the moon moves produces a slight but noticeable camera artifact on the right side of the moon.  Because the moon has moved in relation to the Earth between the time the first (red) and last (green) exposures were made, a thin green offset appears on the right side of the moon when the three exposures are combined.  This natural lunar movement also produces a slight red and blue offset on the left side of the moon in these unaltered images.  The lunar far side lacks the large, dark, basaltic plains, or maria, that are so prominent on the Earth-facing side.  The largest far side features are Mare Moscoviense in the upper left and Tsiolkovskiy crater in the lower left.  A thin sliver of shadowed area of moon is visible on its right side.

“It is surprising how much brighter Earth is than the moon,” said Adam Szabo, DSCOVR project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.  “Our planet is a truly brilliant object in dark space compared to the lunar surface.”